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Article 1 - Name

    The name of this organization shall be the Morris Museum Astronomical Society (MMAS).

Article 2 - Purpose

    The purpose of this society shall be to foster an interest in astronomy and to afford an opportunity to participate in astronomical activities.

Article 3 - Membership

    Section 1: Membership shall be by family.   The dues shall be as established by the By-laws.

    Section 2: Honorary membership shall be appointed at the discretion of the Board of Directors and shall be without dues requirement.  The vote to appoint honorary members requires two thirds of the Board of Directors to be in favor.  The honorary member will have no vote and will not hold executive office.  All honorary members prior to 1987 will have the right to vote.

Article 4 - Officers and Directors

    Section 1: The executive officers of the society shall be the President, Vice President, Secretary, and Treasurer.

    Section 2: The Board of Directors shall be composed of the executive officers, the immediate past President, the Morris Museum Liaison, and the standing Committee Chairmen.

    Section 3: In the event that an officer of this society cannot, for any reason fulfill his/her term of office, the Board of Directors will appoint a successor to fill the unexpired term.

    Section 4: The Director of the Museum will appoint a staff member as liaison, after consolation with the Board of Directors of the MMAS.  Duties of  the Liaison shall be as prescribed by the Director of the Morris Museum.

Article 5 - Committees

   Section 1: The Chairman of each committee shall be nominated by the President in the month of September.  In November, the Board of Directors shall vote  in favor by two thirds before the Chairman hay take his/her office in January of the following year.   The Chairman will remain on office will have the right  to vote until their successor takes office.

    Section 2: Terms of the office will be for one (1) year, form January 1st to December 31st.

    Section 3: Committee members will be chosen by the respective committee chairman and approved by the Board of Directors.

    Section 4: No new select committees may be started unless the Board of Directors vote in favor of it.

Article 6 - Elections

   Section 1: Election of the officer shall be by majority vote, by ballot, at the November general meeting.

    Section 2: One ballot will be sent per family.

    Section 3: Ballots will be mailed out no later than 5 days before the November general meeting.

    Section 4: All ballots will be handed in by a member of the family at the November general meeting.

    Section 5: The terms of office of the officers shall run from the first of January, following the election, until the last day of December, or until their successors  are elected.

Article 7 - Meetings

    Section 1: The regular meeting shall be held the second Thursday of the month, or set forth in a notice of such meetings.

    Section 2: Special meetings of the Society may be called at any time by the President or a majority of the Board of Directors.

    Section 3: The Board of Directors shall meet as often as deemed necessary at the call of the President or a majority of the Board.

Article 8 - Amendments

    Section 1: Proposed amendments to the Constitution or By-Laws of this Society, after being approved by a two thirds majority of the Board of Directors,  shall be sent in writing, five (5) days prior to the meeting, to all members of the society at which they are to be voted upon.  Amendments shall become  effective immediately if carried by a two thirds majority of the voting members present.

    Section 2: Publication of the Society bulletin shall constitute a notice in writing.

Article 9 - Assets of the Society

    In the event of dissolution of the Society, all of its assents shall be turned over to the Morris Museum.

Article 10 - Cancellation Clause

    The adoption of this Constitution automatically cancels all previous constitutions and amendments.

Adopted  (revised)            April 11, 1993

Ronald Russo              Anthony J. Pisano

Rule and Credential Committee



Morris Museum Astronomical Society By-Laws

Article 1 - Duties of Officers

    Section 1: The President shall preside over all meetings of the Society and of the Board of Directors.  The President shall be an ex-official member of all  committees and shall nominate all committee chairmen.

    Section 2: The Vice President shall be vested with all the powers and shall perform all the duties of the President immediately in the baseness of the latter.  No  vote will be put off, or delayed, to wait for the President's return.  All meetings and activities shall start on time.

   Section 3: The Secretary shall keep the minutes of all meetings of the Society and the Board of Directors, handle the correspondence, maintain the records of  the Society as the Board may designate, and perform such other duties as may be assigned by the Board of Directors.  In the absence of the President  and the Vice President, the Secretary will perform the duties of the President.

    Section 4: The Treasurer shall keep all records of dues, as well as all other monies.  All Society monies shall be turned over to the Museum Financial Manager  for recording in the account of the MMAS and for ultimate deposit in a financial institution designated by the Museum.  The Treasurer shall authorize  payment of all bills after they have been approved by the Board of Directors.  The Treasurer shall present a report of receipts and disbursements  annually, or whenever requested by the Board.  The Treasurer shall reconcile the balance in his ledger with that stated in the Society's account in the   Museum's ledger at least twice a year.  As soon as possible following the December reconciliation, the Treasurer shall present a report to the Board of   directors, highlighting the major financial events of the year.  In the absence of the President, Vice President, and the Secretary, the Treasurer will  immediately perform the duties of the President.

    Section 5: The Board of Directors shall constitute the governing body of the Society.

    Section 6: Members of the Board of Directors shall be entitled to only one vote on the Board regardless of the number of positions they may hold.

        Subsection 1: The President will not have a vote in meetings of the Board of Directors except in the case of a tie vote.

        Subsection 2: All committee chairmen must attend a minimum of 50% of the Board of Directors meetings.  Any chairman absent for 2 consecutive meetings  may not vote upon return on any subject but will have the right to vote at the next consecutive meeting they attend, if they have attended 50% or more  of the Board of Directors meetings.

        Subsection 3: All members of the Society have the right to attend any business meeting, unless for a specific reason, that meeting shall be closed.

    Section 7: Any officer derelict in his duties, and any member whose conduct is such as to be considered detrimental to the welfare or reputation of the Society  may be removed from office or membership by a two thirds affirmative vote of the Board of Directors.

    Section 8: The Board of Directors shall appoint a nominating committee of three (3) members.  By September 30th, the committee shall select a chairman and  prepare a slate of one candidate for each executive office to be filled.  The slate is to be presented to the membership, in writing, 5 days prior to the  date of the election.  No nominations may be made from the floor.  Candidates can only be nominated by the Nominating Committee.  Any other  nominations must be by petition signed by 10 members in good standing (dues paying members whose dues are current).  All petitions must be in the  Secretary's possession no later than October 1st.

Article 2 - Standing Committee

    Section 1: The Program Committee shall plan programs, solicit guests and member speakers, obtain films, slides and other graphic material, and assist in  presentations as required for each general meeting.

    Section 2: The Publication Committee

        Subsection 1: The Publication Committee shall edit, publish, and distribute the Heavenly Herald.  The committee shall also solicit literary articles from  members and other sources for publication therein.

        Subsection 2: No publication will be released or printed unless the President or, in his absence, the next officer available and the Museum Administration  authorizes it.

        Subsection 3: The Board of Directors must vote in favor of any changes to the existing format prior to publication.

    Section 3: The Membership Committee

        Subsection 1: The Membership Committee shall arrange for someone at each meeting to welcome guests and members and solicit new members.   The  committee shall also keep track of, and in touch with, all members as is practical.

        Subsection 2: The committee shall devise and disseminate publicity to attract new members and visitors.  The committee will coordinate with the publication  committee.

        Subsection 3: The Refreshment Committee shall procure and set up refreshments at each meeting as fits the occasion.

    Section 4: The Rule and Credential Committee

        Subsection 1: The Rule and Credential Committee shall generate a Constitution and By-Laws for the Society and present them for adoption by the general  membership.

        Subsection 2: The Committee shall resolve any dispute that members, Executive Officers, and Board of Directors cannot resolve.   Roberts Rules of Order  will be used in all cases if possible.  The committee shall have up to 10 days to make a decision.

        Subsection 3: This committee shall consist of 3 members only.  Chairman, Rules person, Credential Person.  All 3 members will be nominated by the  President and confirmed by two thirds of the Board of Directors before they may take their posts.

        Subsection 4: All decisions made will be by majority of this committee.  If there is a dissenting vote, one of the two affirmative voting members will give their   decision.

    Section 5: The Observing Committee shall be responsible for astronomical observations, research, astrophotography, related activities, and shall provide the  Observatory schedule for publication.

Article 3 - Term of Office

    No officer shall be elected to hold the same office for more than three (3) consecutive terms.

Article 4 - Dues and Fees

    Section 1: The amount of all dues and fees shall be determined, regulated or altered, by a two thirds vote of the members of the Board of Directors.

    Section 2: Any member whose dues are in arrears by 30 days, shall forfeit membership.

Articles 5 - Quorum

    Section 1: A quorum for a membership meeting of the Society shall be 20 members.

    Section 2: A quorum for a meeting of the Board of Directors shall be 50% of its members.

Article 6 - Cancellation Clause

    The adoption of these By-Laws automatically cancels any previous by-laws and amendments.


Ronald Russo     Anthony J. Pisano

Rule and Credential Committee